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Women in Science: Gabrielle Renaudot Flammarion

Gabrielle Renaudot Flammarion (1877 – 31 October 1962)
Astronomer

Gabrielle
Gabrielle Renaudot Flammarion was a French astronomer. She worked at the observatory at Juvisy-sur-Orge, France, and was General Secretary of the Société Astronomique de France.

She published work in the changing surface features of Mars, the Great Red Spot on Jupiter, and observations of other planets, minor planets and variable stars.

Born as Gabrielle Renaudot, she was married to Camille Flammarion, who also was an accomplished astronomer.

A crater on Mars is named in her honor, and her first name was the basis for naming the asteroid 355 Gabriella.
From Wikipedia

Women in Science: Maria Mitchell-Astronomer

Maria Mitchell (1818-1889)
Astronomer

Growing up in the whaling town of Nantucket, Massachusetts Mitchell grew up learning about the stars and navigation. She could rate the chronometers for whaling ships and plot the movements of the planets.

In 1847, her discovery of a comet invisible to the naked eye won her international fame and a medal from the king of Denmark. After that, she went to work for the U.S. Nautical Almanac Office to compute ephemeredes of the planet Venus.

When Vassar College was founded in 1865, she joined the faculty as a professor of astronomy and director of the college observatory. She became the first woman elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and founded the Association for the Advancement of Women in 1873, chairing the Committee on Women’s Work in Science until her death.

Mitchell

Women in Science

Women in Science: Rosalind Franklin (1920-1958)
Biophysicist

Franklin went to Newnham College, Cambridge and graduated in 1941, but was only awarded a degree titular, as women were not entitled to degrees from Cambridge at the time; in 1945 Franklin received her PhD from Cambridge University.

Franklin’s x-ray diffraction photographs led to the understanding of the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Her colleague, Maurice Wilkins, without obtaining her permission, made available to Watson and Crick her then unpublished x-ray diffraction pattern of the B form of DNA, which was crucial evidence for the helical structure of DNA.

Aside from her x-ray work with DNA, she also work with x-rays of lipids and proteins, and also did x-ray crystallography with the tobacco mosaic virus.

Franklin

Women in Science: Mae Carol Jemison (1956-Present)

Mae Carol Jemison (1956-Present)
Chemical Engineer, Physician, Astronaut
She graduated from Stanford University in 1977 with a B.S. in chemical engineering and a medical degree from Cornell University Medical School in 1981.
She joined NASA’s astronaut training program in 1986 and was the first African American woman to travel to space in the Space Shuttle Endeavor on September 12, 1992. Jemison conducted experiments in life sciences and material sciences and was co-investigator in bone cell research experiment the space laboratory module. She developed and participated in research projects with the NIH on hepatitis B vaccine, schistosomiasis and rabies. Dr. Jemison also speaks Russian, Japanese and Swahili.

Jemison